Indoor Cannabis Growing Guide

Cannabis cultivation is legal in Canada, and in New Brunswick, individuals who wish to grow indoor cannabis should consider starting their plants in early spring to ensure that they mature before the shorter days and cooler temperatures of fall. The specific timing may depend on the strain being grown and the desired harvest time. Researching the strain's growth cycle and flowering time is crucial to determine the best time to start the plants. Indoor growers must consider indoor growing conditions and ensure that the plants have the proper lighting, temperature, humidity, and nutrients to grow and thrive. They may need to adjust the growing conditions throughout the growing cycle to ensure optimal plant growth and bud development.

To grow cannabis indoors, one needs to select the right location, choose the right strain, get the right equipment, set up the growing area, germinate the seeds, provide adequate lighting and proper nutrition, monitor, and adjust the growing conditions, and harvest and dry the plants. Once the plants are ready, they can be enjoyed by smoking, vaporizing, or using them in edibles or other products.

There are some legal considerations that individuals in New Brunswick must take into account when growing cannabis at home. The legal age for growing, possessing, and consuming cannabis in New Brunswick is 19 years, and individuals are allowed to possess up to 30 grams of dried cannabis in public. Adults aged 19 and over can grow up to four cannabis plants per household for personal use, and there is no requirement for a license to grow cannabis for personal use in New Brunswick. However, individuals must ensure that the plants are kept out of public view, in a secure and locked area, and inaccessible to minors. It is illegal to sell cannabis without a license, consume cannabis in public places, including parks, sidewalks, and streets, and drive under the influence of cannabis in New Brunswick.

Here is our guide on how to grow cannabis indoors.

Grow Tent
1. Choose the right location: When selecting a location for your cannabis plants, choose a room that can be easily controlled for temperature, humidity, and lighting. You can also use a grow tent, which is specifically designed for indoor growing and provides a controlled environment for your plants. Make sure that the location you choose has access to electricity and that you have enough space to accommodate your plants and equipment.

2. Get the right equipment: To grow cannabis indoors, you'll need some basic equipment, including:
    • Grow lights: You can use LED, HID, or fluorescent lights, but make sure that the wattage and spectrum are appropriate for your plants.
    • Ventilation system: You'll need an exhaust fan and a carbon filter to control the temperature and humidity of your grow area.
    • Pots or (and) grow medium: Choose a high-quality soil or hydroponic growing medium.
    • Nutrients: Cannabis plants require specific nutrients at different stages of their growth cycle. Choose a high-quality fertilizer that is designed for cannabis plants.
    • pH testing kit: You'll need to monitor the pH level of your water and soil to ensure that your plants are getting the nutrients they need.

    3. Set up your grow area: Set up your grow area with the appropriate equipment, making sure that the temperature, humidity, and lighting are within the appropriate range for your plants. Make sure that your grow area is clean and free of pests and mould that could cause diseases before you start growing.

    4. Select the right seeds: Selecting the right cannabis seeds is crucial for indoor growing. Some seeds are more adaptable to indoor conditions and require less space and light than others. Sativa strains tend to grow taller and require more space, while Indica strains tend to be shorter and bushier. You can also select an auto-flowering strain, which doesn't rely on a specific light cycle to flower.
      • Regular Seeds: Regular seeds are the most common type of cannabis seed. They produce male and female plants in roughly equal numbers, and growers must determine the gender of the plants and remove the males before they begin to produce pollen and fertilize the females. Regular seeds are often used by experienced growers who want to create their own strains.
      • Feminized Seeds: Feminized seeds are designed to produce only female plants, eliminating the need to remove male plants. Feminized seeds are ideal for novice growers who want to simplify the growing process and ensure that all of their plants produce flowers.
      • Auto-flowering Seeds: Auto-flowering seeds are ideal for growers who want to produce cannabis quickly and easily. These seeds produce plants that automatically switch from the vegetative phase to the flowering phase after a certain number of weeks, regardless of the light cycle. Auto-flowering seeds are a good choice for growers who have limited space and want to produce multiple harvests in a year.
      • CBD Seeds: CBD seeds are high in cannabidiol (CBD), which is a non-psychoactive compound that is known for its medicinal properties. These seeds produce plants that have low levels of THC and high levels of CBD, making them ideal for medical use. CBD seeds are often used to produce oils, tinctures, and other medicinal products.
      • Hybrid Seeds: Hybrid seeds are created by crossing two or more strains of cannabis to produce a new strain with desirable characteristics from both parents. Hybrid seeds can produce plants that are high in THC or CBD, depending on the parent strains. Hybrids can be further classified as sativa-dominant, Indica-dominant, or balanced, depending on the characteristics of the parent plants.
      Some popular strains for indoor growing include:
        Northern LightsBlue Dream
        Sour DieselWhite Widow
        OG Kush
          5. Germinate your seeds: There are several methods for germinating cannabis seeds, but here are three of the most popular:
          Paper Towel Germination
          Paper towel method:
          • Wet a few paper towels and wring out any excess water.
          • Place the seeds in between the damp paper towels and place them on a plate.
          • Cover the plate with another plate or plastic wrap to keep the moisture in.
          • Keep the plate in a warm, dark place, such as a closet or cupboard.
          • Check on the seeds every day and make sure the paper towels stay damp.
          • After a few days, you should see the seeds sprout and develop a small taproot.

          Soil Germination

             Direct soil method:
            • Fill a small container with moist soil.
            • Create a small hole in the center of the soil with a pencil or your finger.
            • Place the seed in the hole and cover it lightly with soil.
            • Water the soil and cover the container with plastic wrap or a humidity dome to keep the moisture in.
            • Keep the container in a warm, dark place, such as a closet or cupboard.
            • Check on the seeds every day and make sure the soil stays moist.
            • After a few days, you should see the seeds sprout and develop a small taproot.
                Seed Plugs
                Seedling plugs method:
                  • Purchase pre-fertilized seedling plugs from a garden center or online.
                  • Place the seedling plugs in a tray or container and add water until they are moist.
                  • Place the seeds in the pre-made holes on the top of the seedling plugs.
                  • Cover the tray or container with plastic wrap or a humidity dome to keep the moisture in.
                  • Keep the container in a warm, dark place, such as a closet or cupboard.
                  • Check on the seeds every day and make sure the plugs stay moist.
                  • After a few days, you should see the seeds sprout and develop a small taproot.
                  • Once your seeds have sprouted and developed a taproot, it's time to transplant them into your growing medium. Be careful not to damage the delicate taproot when handling the seeds.

                  Grow Tent

                  6. Make Sure Your Growing Environment Is Right For Your Plants
                    •  Lighting: Indoor cannabis plants need a lot of light to grow and produce buds. The most common type of lighting used for indoor cannabis cultivation is high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps, which come in two types: metal halide (MH) and high-pressure sodium (HPS). LED grow lights are also becoming more popular due to their energy efficiency and the ability to customize the light spectrum for different stages of growth.
                    • Temperature: Indoor cannabis plants prefer a temperature range of 18-26°C (65-80°F) during the day and 15-20°C (60-68°F) at night. Temperatures that are too high or too low can cause stress and affect plant growth or cause hermaphrodite plants.
                    • Humidity: The ideal humidity range for indoor cannabis plants is between 40% and 60%. High humidity can cause mould and mildew, while low humidity can cause plants to dry out and stress.
                    • Air Circulation: Good air circulation is important for indoor cannabis plants to prevent the buildup of stagnant air and mould. It's recommended to use fans or other air-moving devices to circulate the air in the grow room.
                    • Nutrients: Cannabis plants require a balance of nutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as well as micronutrients such as calcium, magnesium, and iron. It's important to use fertilizers and supplements specifically designed for cannabis plants to ensure they receive the proper nutrients.
                    • Watering: Cannabis plants require regular watering to prevent them from drying out or becoming waterlogged. It's important to use a well-draining growing medium and to water plants when the top inch of soil feels dry to the touch.
                    • pH Levels: The pH level of the growing medium is important for proper nutrient absorption. Cannabis plants prefer a pH range of 6.0 to 7.0. It's important to test the pH level regularly and adjust it as needed using pH-up or pH-down solutions.
                    • Monitor and adjust: Monitor your plants regularly, checking for signs of stress or nutrient deficiencies. Adjust the temperature, humidity, and lighting as necessary to ensure that your plants are healthy and thriving.
                      7. Harvesting and drying cannabis is an important part of the cultivation process, as it affects the potency, flavour, and overall quality of the final product. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to harvest and dry cannabis:
                        • Timing: Harvesting cannabis at the right time is crucial to get the desired effects. Most strains are ready for harvest when the majority of the trichomes have turned milky white in colour, and some have turned amber. Trichomes are the resin glands on the buds that contain cannabinoids and terpenes.
                        • Harvesting: To harvest cannabis, you will need to use a pair of scissors or pruning shears to cut the stems just above the soil level. Be careful not to damage the buds, and avoid handling them too much to prevent losing trichomes. Remove any large fan leaves that are attached to the stems.
                        • Drying: Drying cannabis slowly and properly is crucial to preserve the potency and quality of the buds. To dry the cannabis, you will need to hang the stems upside down in a cool, dark, and well-ventilated area. A humidity level of around 50% and a temperature of 60-70°F (15-21°C) is ideal for drying.
                        • Trimming: After the buds have dried for 5-7 days, remove them from the stems and trim off any excess leaves that are still attached. Be careful not to trim off too much, as this can damage the buds and reduce the potency.
                        • Curing: Once the buds have been trimmed, it's time to cure them. Curing is the process of slowly drying the buds in a controlled environment to remove any excess moisture and enhance the flavour and aroma. To cure the buds, place them in airtight containers, such as mason jars, and store them in a cool, dark place. Open the jars for a few minutes each day to allow fresh air to circulate and check the buds for signs of mould.
                        • Storing: After the buds have been cured, they can be stored in a cool, dark, and dry place for long-term storage. Properly dried and cured buds can last for up to a year or more if stored in an airtight container in a cool, dry place with humidity regulator packs.

                        8. Enjoy your harvest: Once your cannabis plants are ready, you can enjoy your harvest by smoking, vaporizing, or using it in edibles or other products.
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